45. Silva G, Cunha RL, Ramos A, and Castilho R. 2017. Wandering behaviour prevents inter and intra oceanic speciation in a coastal pelagic fish. Scientific Reports 7:741-712 DOI 10.1038/s41598-017-02945-0

44. Madeira PM, Chefaoui RM, Cunha RL, Moreira F, Dias S, Calado G, and Castilho R. 2017. High unexpected genetic diversity of a narrow endemic terrestrial mollusc. PeerJ 5: e3069-3020 DOI 10.7717/peerj.3069

43. Cunha RL, Assis JM, Madeira C, Seabra R, Lima FP, Lopes EP, Williams ST, and Castilho R. 2017. Drivers of Cape Verde archipelagic endemism in keyhole limpets. Scientific Reports:1-11 DOI 10.1038/srep41817

42. Castilho R, Cunha RL, Faria C, Velasco EM, and Robalo JI. 2017. Asymmetrical dispersal and putative isolation-by-distance of an intertidal blenniid across the Atlantic–Mediterranean divide. PeerJ 5: e3195-3122 DOI 10.7717/peerj.3195

41. Aurelle D, Pivotto ID, Malfant M, Topçu NE, Masmoudi MB, Chaoui L, Kara HM, Coelho MAG, Castilho R, and Haguenauer A. 2017. Fuzzy species limits in Mediterranean gorgonians (Cnidaria, Octocorallia): inferences on speciation processes. Zoologica Scripta 139:855-812 DOI 10.1111/zsc.12245

40. Kramp K, Cizek O, Madeira PM, Ramos AA, Konvicka M, Castilho R, and Schmitt T. 2016. Genetic implications of phylogeographical patterns in the conservation of the boreal wetland butterfly Colias palaeno (Pieridae). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 119:1068-1081 DOI 10.1111/bij.12840

39. Castilho R, and Silva G. 2016. The European anchovy, a genetically highly diverse species displays null within-sample haplotype diversity on a single study? Mitochondrial DNA 1:66-67 DOI 10.1080/23802359.2015.1137823

38. Zardi GI, Nicastro KR, McQuaid CD, Castilho R, Costa J, Serrao EA, and Pearson GA. 2015. Intraspecific genetic lineages of a marine mussel show behavioural divergence and spatial segregation over a tropical/subtropical biogeographic transition. BMC Evolutionary Biology 15:1 DOI 10.1186/s12862-015-0366-5

37. Stefanni S, Castilho R, Sala-Bozano M, Robalo JI, Francisco SM, Santos RS, Marques N, Brito A, Almada VC, and Mariani S. 2015. Establishment of a coastal fish in the Azores: recent colonisation or sudden expansion of an ancient relict population? Heredity 115:527-537 DOI 10.1038/hdy.2015.55

36. Patrão C, Assis J, Rufino M, Silva G, Jordaens K, Backeljau T, and Castilho R. 2015. Habitat suitability modelling of four terrestrial slug species in the Iberian Peninsula (Arionidae: Geomalacus species). Journal of Molluscan Studies:1-8 DOI 10.1093/mollus/eyv018

35. Lourenço C, Nicastro KR, Serrão EA, Castilho R, and Zardi GI. 2015. Behind the mask: cryptic genetic diversity of Mytilus galloprovincialis along southern European and northern African shores. Journal of Molluscan Studies:1-8 DOI 10.1093/mollus/eyv004

34. Junker M, Zimmermann M, Ramos AA, Gros P, Konvicka M, Nève G, Rákosy L, Tammaru T, Castilho R, and Schmitt T. 2015. Three in one—multiple faunal elements within an endangered european butterfly species. PLoS ONE 10:e0142282-0142224 DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0142282

33. Silva G, Lima FP, Martel P, and Castilho R. 2014. Thermal adaptation and clinal mitochondrial DNA variation of European anchovy. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B: Biological Sciences 281:20141093-20141093 DOI 10.1098/rspb.2014.1093

32. Silva G, Horne JB, and Castilho R. 2014. Anchovies go north and west without losing diversity: post-glacial range expansions in a small pelagic fish. Journal of Biogeography (J Biogeogr) 41:1171-1182 DOI 10.1111/jbi.12275

31. Patrão C, de Sousa JT, Jordaens K, Backeljau T, Castilho R, and Leitão A. 2014. Geomalacus and Letourneuxia (Mollusca, Pulmonata): A cytogenetic assessment. Malacologia 56:333-338 DOI 10.4002/040.056.0222

30. Cunha RL, Lima FP, Tenorio MJ, Ramos AA, Castilho R, and Williams ST. 2014. Evolution at a different pace: distinctive phylogenetic patterns of Cone snails from two ancient oceanic archipelagos. Systematic Biology 63:971-987 DOI 10.1093/sysbio/syu059

29. Robalo JI, Crespo AM, Castilho R, Francisco SM, Amorim MCP, and Almada VC. 2013. Are local extinctions and recolonizations continuing at the colder limits of marine fish distributions? Halobatrachus didactylus (Bloch & Schneider, 1801), a possible candidate. Marine Biology 160:2461-2467 DOI 10.1007/s00227-013-2241-5

28. Prévot V, Jordaens K, Van Houtte N, Sonet G, Janssens K, Castilho R, and Backeljau T. 2013. Taxonomic and population genetic re-interpretation of two color morphs of the decollate snail, Rumina decollata (Mollusca, Pulmonata) in southern France. Genetica 141:281-292 DOI 10.1007/s10709-013-9727-4

27. Cunha RL, Coscia I, Madeira C, Mariani S, Stefanni S, and Castilho R. 2012. Ancient divergence in the trans-oceanic deep-sea shark Centroscymnus crepidater. PLoS ONE 7:e49196 DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0049196.t003

26. Correia AT, Ramos AA, Barros F, Silva Gcca, Hamer P, Morais P, Cunha RL, and Castilho R. 2012. Population structure and connectivity of the European conger eel (Conger conger) across the north-eastern Atlantic and western Mediterranean: integrating molecular and otolith elemental approaches. Marine Biology 159:1509-1525 DOI 10.1007/s00227-012-1936-3

25. Almada VC, Almada F, Francisco SM, Castilho R, and Robalo JI. 2012. Unexpected high genetic diversity at the extreme northern geographic limit of Taurulus bubalis (Euphrasen, 1786). PLoS ONE 7:e44404 DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0044404.t001

24. Robalo JI, Castilho R, Francisco SM, Almada F, Knutsen H, Jorde PE, Pereira AM, and Almada VC. 2011. Northern refugia and recent expansion in the North Sea: the case of the wrasse Symphodus melops (Linnaeus, 1758). Ecology and Evolution 1:153-164 DOI 10.1002/ece3.77

23. Reis DM, Cunha RL, Patrão C, Rebelo R, and Castilho R. 2011. Salamandra salamandra (Amphibia: Caudata: Salamandridae) in Portugal: not all black and yellow. Genetica 139:1095-1105 DOI 10.1007/s10709-011-9609-6

22. Cunha RL, Lopes EP, Reis DM, and Castilho R. 2011. Genetic structure of Brachidontes puniceus populations in Cape Verde archipelago shows signature of expansion during the last glacial maximum. Journal of Molluscan Studies 77:175-181 DOI 10.1093/mollus/eyr001

21. Robalo JI, Sousa-Santos C, Cabral H, Castilho R, and Almada VC. 2009. Genetic evidence fails to discriminate between Macroramphosus gracilis Lowe 1839 and Macroramphosus scolopax Linnaeus 1758 in Portuguese waters. Marine Biology 156:1733-1737 DOI 10.1007/s00227-009-1197-y

20. Ramos AA, Marques AR, Rodrigues M, Henriques N, Baumgartner A, Castilho R, Brenig B, and Varela JC. 2009. Molecular and functional characterization of a cDNA encoding 4-hydroxy-3-methylbut-2-enyl diphosphate reductase from Dunaliella salina. Journal of Plant Physiology 166:968-977 DOI 10.1016/j.jplph.2008.11.008

19. Francisco SM, Castilho R, Soares M, Congiu L, Brito A, Vieira MN, and Almada VC. 2009. Phylogeography and demographic history of Atherina presbyter (Pisces: Atherinidae) in the North-eastern Atlantic based on mitochondrial DNA. Marine Biology 156:1421-1432 DOI 10.1007/s00227-009-1182-5

18. Maggs CA, Castilho R, Foltz D, Henzler C, Jolly MT, Kelly J, Olsen J, Perez KE, Stam W, Vainola R, Viard F, and Wares J. 2008. Evaluating signatures of glacial refugia for North Atlantic benthic marine taxa. Ecology 89:S108-122 DOI 10.1890/08-0257.1

17. Francisco SM, Congiu L, Stefanni S, Castilho R, Brito A, Ivanova PP, Levy A, Cabral H, Doadrio I, and Almada VC. 2008. Phylogenetic relationships of the North-eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean forms of Atherina (Pisces, Atherinidae).  48:782-788 DOI 10.1016/j.ympev.2007.12.009

16. Cunha RL, Tenorio MJ, Afonso C, Castilho R, and Zardoya R. 2008. Replaying the tape: recurring biogeographical patterns in Cape Verde Conus after 12 million years. Molecular Ecology 17:885-901 DOI 10.1111/j.1365-294X.2007.03618.x

15. Barata M, Harris DJ, and Castilho R. 2008. Comparative phylogeography of northwest African Natrix maura (Serpentes: Colubridae) inferred from mtDNA sequences. African Zoology 43:1-7 DOI 10.1080/15627020.2008.11407400

14. Patarnello T, Volckaert FA, and Castilho R. 2007. Pillars of Hercules: is the Atlantic--Mediterranean transition a phylogeographical break? Molecular Ecology 16:4426-4444 DOI 10.1111/j.1365-294X.2007.03477.x

13. Castilho R, Freitas M, Silva G, Carvalho JF, and Coelho R. 2007. Morphological and mitochondrial DNA divergence validates blackmouth, Galeus melastomus, and Atlantic sawtail catsharks, Galeus atlanticus, as separate species. Journal of Fish Biology 70:346-358 DOI 10.1111/j.1095-8649.2007.01455.x

12. Martínez P, González EG, Castilho R, and Zardoya R. 2006. Genetic diversity and historical demography of Atlantic bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus).  39:404-416 DOI 10.1016/j.ympev.2005.07.022

11. Magoulas A, Castilho R, Caetano S, Marcato S, and Patarnello T. 2006. Mitochondrial DNA reveals a mosaic pattern of phylogeographical structure in Atlantic and Mediterranean populations of anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus).  39:734-746 DOI 10.1016/j.ympev.2006.01.016

10. Fritz U, Barata M, Busack SD, Fritzsch G, and Castilho R. 2006. Impact of mountain chains, sea straits and peripheral populations on genetic and taxonomic structure of a freshwater turtle, Mauremys leprosa (Reptilia, Testudines, Geoemydidae). Zoologica Scripta 35:97-108 DOI 10.1111/j.1463-6409.2005.00218.x

9. Cunha RL, Castilho R, Rüber L, and Zardoya R. 2005. Patterns of cladogenesis in the venomous marine gastropod genus Conus from the Cape Verde Islands. Systematic Biology 54:634–650 DOI 10.1080/106351591007471

8. Castilho R, and Ciftci Y. 2005. Genetic differentiation between close eastern Mediterranean Dicentrarchus labrax (L.) populations. Journal of Fish Biology 67:1746-1752 DOI 10.1111/j.1095-8649.2005.00869.x

7. Zardoya R, Castilho R, Grande C, Krey LF, Caetano S, Marcato S, Krey G, and Patarnello T. 2004. Differential population structuring of two closely related fish species, the mackerel (Scomber scombrus) and the chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus), in the Mediterranean Sea. Molecular Ecology 13:1785-1798 DOI 10.1111/j.1365-294X.2004.02198.x

6. Geenen S, Jordaens K, Castilho R, and Backeljau T. 2003. Congruence between starch gel and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in detecting allozyme variation in pulmonate land slugs. Electrophoresis 24:622-627 DOI 10.1002/elps.200390072

5. Phillips A, Fonseca F, Povoa V, Castilho R, and Nolasco G. 2002. A reassessment of the anamorphic fungus Fusicoccum luteum and description of its teleomorph Botryosphaeria lutea sp. nov. Sydowia:19 4. Ciftci Y, Castilho R, and McAndrew BJ. 2002. More polymorphic microsatellite markers in the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.). Molecular Ecology Notes 2:575-576 DOI 10.1046/j.1471-8286.2002.00327.x

3. Castilho R, and McAndrew BJ. 1998. Population structure of seabass in Portugal: evidence from allozymes. Journal of Fish Biology 53:1038-1049 DOI 10.1111/j.1095-8649.1998.tb00461.x

2. Castilho R, and McAndrew B. 1998. Two polymorphic microsatellite markers in the European seabass, Dicentrarchus labrax (L.). Animal Genetics 29:151-152 DOI 10.1046/j.1365-2052.1998.00216.x

1. Castilho R, Dinis MT, and Erzini K. 1993. Age and growth of megrim Lepidorhombus boscii, Risso of the Portuguese continental coast. Fisheries Research 16:339-346 DOI 10.1016/0165-7836(93)90145-W